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          l-text">Last updated: 22 Feb, 2017  
          SME Glossary
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          Glossary of Export Import Trade Terms Starting with - A
          Words   Description
          AB Appellate Body
          ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries.
          ADB Asia Development Bank, head quartered located in Manila, Philippines (ASIA).
          AEZs Refers to a scheme of Agricultural Export Zones.
          APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
          ATC Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
          Absolute Advantage(AB-AD) An absolute advantage exists in condition of when a nation or other economic region of any country is able to produce a good or service more efficiently than a second (other) nation or its region.
          Acceptance Any agreement to purchase goods under specified terms. An agreement to purchase goods at a stated price and under stated terms.
          Accounting Translation Exposure Changes in a organizations or corporation's financial statements as a result of changes in currency values.
          Acquisition Premium In a merger or acquisition, the difference between the purchase price and the reacquisition value of the target firm or company.
          Acquisition of Assets In an acquisition of assets, one firm acquires the assets of another company. None of the liabilities supporting that asset are transferred to the purchaser.
          Acquisition of Stock In an acquisition of stock, one firm buys an equity interest in another.
          Active Fund Management An investment approach that actively shifts funds either between asset classes (asset allocation) or between individual securities (security selection).
          Active Income In the U.S. tax code, income from an active business as opposed to passive investment income.
          Activity-Based-Cost (ABC) An accounting method that allocates costs to specific products based on breakdowns of cost drivers.
          Ad Valorem According to value
          Ad valorem Tariff A tariff assessed as a percentage of the value of an import.
          Adjusted Present Value(APV) An APV is a valuation method that separately identifies the value of an unlevered project from the value of financing side effects.
          Advance Against Documents A loan made on the security of the documents covering the shipment.
          Advance Licence Advance Licence is granted for import of inputs without payment of customs duties. It is issued in accordance with the Policy and procedures in force and subject to fulfillment of time-bound export obligation. Such licences can be issued
          Advance Payment Advance Payment is a Trading method in which the buyer pays for the goods before they are sent out , method is used when buyer is of unknown credit worthiness. It is applicable in International or domestic trade.
          Adventure Adventure also define for marine adventure." It is a term of art in the marine insurance business. All insured cargo owners and every shipper on that vessel are part of the adventure.
          Advising Bank Advising Bank is usually in the country of the seller, whose primary function is to authenticate the letter of credit and advise it to the seller, Purchase and collection of Export Bills.
          Advisory Capacity A term indicating that shipper's agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without approval of the group or individual represented.
          African Developmental Bank (ABD) The ABD is one of four major regional developmental banks currently operating in the global economy; it is headquartered in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.
          Agency Costs The costs incurred to ensure that agents act in the best interest of the principal.
          Agent Someone who represents business in domestic and overseas market. In corporate governance terminology, management is the agent of the principal stakeholders in a principal-agent relationship.
          Aggregate Demand The total demand of all potential buyers of a commodity or service. Includes all individuals and organizations that have the ability, willingness, and authority to purchase such products.
          Air Waybill A BILL OF LADING that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination.
          All-in Cost The percentage cost of a financing alternative, including any bank fees or placement fees.
          Allocation Rules of Income In the U.S. tax code, these rules define how income and deductions are to be allocated between domestic-source and foreign-source income.
          Allocation efficiency The efficiency with which a market channels capital toward its most productive uses.
          Alongside A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods to be delivered "alongside" are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship's tackle so that they can be loaded aboard the ship.
          Alteration A change in the boundaries of an activated zone or subzone.
          Andean Pact A regional trade pact that includes Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
          Annuity A level stream of equal dollar payments that lasts for a fixed time. An example of an annuity is the coupon part of a bond with level annual payments.
          Anti-Dumping Laws Laws that are enacted to prevent dumping-offering prices in the overseas market that is lower than that at which a product is sold in its home domestic market.
          Applicant A corporation applying for the right to establish, operate and maintain a foreign-trade zone.
          Appreciation An increase in a currency value relative to another currency in a floating exchange rate system.
          Arbitrage The process of buying FOREIGN EXCHANGE, stocks, bonds and other commodities in one market and immediately selling them in another market at higher prices.
          Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) An asset pricing model that assumes a linear relation between required return and systematic risk as measured by one or more factors according to Rj = mj + b1jF1 + ... + bKjFK + ej.
          Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) APEC forum designed to promote economic growth, cooperation, and integration among member nations. The most prominent members are China, Japan, and Korea.
          Asian Development Bank (ABD) One of four major regional development banks currently operating in the global economy; it is headquartered in Manila, Philippines.
          Asian Dollars U.S. dollars deposited in Asia and the Pacific Basin.
          Ask "offer" Rates The rate at which a market maker is willing to sell the quoted asset.
          Asset Allocation Policy The target weights given to various asset classes in an investment portfolio.
          Assets-in-Place Those assets in which the firm has already invested. (Compare to growth options.)
          Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) A loose or low economic and geopolitical affiliation that includes Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Future members are likely to include Myanmar (Burma), Laos, and Cambodia.
          At-the-Money Option An option with an exercise price that is equal to the current value of the underlying asset.
          Attributive Basis Method of accounting for merchandise where direct identification of the goods with the shipment as admitted to the zone has been lost.
          Autarky In models of international trade, a situation in which there is no cross-border trade.
          Aval A guarantee of the buyer's credit provided by the guarantor, unless the buyer is of unquestioned financial standing. The aval is an endorsement note as opposed to a guarantee agreement.
          Avalisation Payment undertaking given by a bank in respect of a bill of exchange drawn.
          Average Accounting Return (AAR) The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average book value of the investment during its life.
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